By Natasja Bolton, Senior Acquirer Support
In 2015 use of the 20 year old SSL security protocol for encryption of sensitive data in transmission was deprecated (in PCI DSS v3.1) to encourage ecommerce businesses to migrate to TLS (Transport Layer Security).
In 2016, further technology changes are underway that will impact those of your customers that secure their ecommerce website with TLS certificates signed using the even older SHA-1 hashing algorithm.
What is SHA-1 and why is support for it ceasing?
SHA-1 is a hashing algorithm used to sign digital certificates by certificate authorities, the trusted entities that issue the TLS certificates used to verify a website’s identity on the Internet. However, the SHA-1 hashing algorithm is known to be weak due to advances in cryptographic attacks and the calculating power of today’s computers.
As a result both the certificate authorities and the browser vendors have taken action to deprecate the use of SHA-1 based certificates.
What does this mean for your customers?
What this means for businesses protecting their ecommerce websites using SHA-1 signed SSL or TLS certificates, is that their customers could be warned that their connection to the business’ website is ‘untrusted’ or ‘insecure’. The customer’s web browser may even block the connection entirely.
As Netcraft points out, many thousands or even millions of websites are still using valid SHA-1 signed digital certificates. Although most certificate authorities ceased issuing SHA-1-based certificates at the beginning of 2016, historically SHA-1 was the most commonly used hashing algorithm.
It is only since 1st April 2015 that certificate authorities have been prohibited from issuing certificates with a validity period longer than 39 months; before that validity periods could be up to 4 or even 5 years.
As a result, businesses issued with SHA-1 signed SSL or TLS certificates with years to go until their expiry will not be requesting re-issues of their certificates from their certificate authority, and moving to SHA-2 signed certificates, anytime soon.
Action is therefore needed to raise awareness among your online and ecommerce businesses to make sure that they do not lose custom as consumer browsers cease their support for SHA-1 signed certificates. In addition, the PCI DSS itself does not consider SHA-1 to be a secure or acceptable hashing algorithm.
PCI DSS regards strong cryptography to be based on industry-tested and accepted algorithms, referencing NIST Special Publication 800-57 Part 1. The current release of NIST 800-57 indicates that SHA-1 is no longer approved for generating digital signatures.
Therefore, for PCI DSS compliance not only do ecommerce businesses need to make sure they migrate away from use of SSL and early TLS (by end June 2018), they also need to make sure that their TLS certificates use the SHA-2 hashing algorithm.
What is changing?
Weaknesses were identified in the SHA-1 algorithm as early as 2005 but it is only in recent years that browser vendors have taken action to address these concerns. Calculations in 2012 showed that it was becoming increasingly likely that attackers would be able to forge a certificate that could allow them to impersonate the identity of a real website and intercept its encrypted traffic.
In light of these weaknesses and the potential for their exploitation, in November 2013 Microsoft was the first to announce that it would stop support for SHA-1 certificates after 2016. Other browser vendors were quick to follow suit to, stating that they would stop support for SHA-1 certificates and would start displaying warnings for sites using SHA-1 signed certificates.
The most recent position for common consumer web browsers:
|Date||Impact on Consumer Browsers|
|1st July 2016||Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer:
|1st January 2017||Google, and Mozilla:
|14th February 2017||Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer:
* Both Mozilla and Google are considering moving this date up to 1st July 2016, in light of the ongoing research into SHA-1 attacks.
The latest information can be found at:
For businesses wishing to understand what these SHA-1 certificate browser warnings and errors look like to the consumer, badssl.com has set up two test websites:
How do businesses know whether their ecommerce website is affected?
The quickest way for a business to find out whether their ecommerce website is using a SHA-1 signed SSL or TLS certificate is to input their website URL or domain name into a scanning and discovery tool. There are many freely available including:
What do business need to do if their ecommerce website is using a SHA-1 signed certificate?
Firstly, it is worth noting that although SHA-1 has known weaknesses and exploits have been developed, due to the cost of exploitation to hackers, the SHA-1 hashing algorithm is still safe to use. However, SHA-1’s long-term ability to stand up to attacks is questionable and diminishing consumer browser support means businesses need to take action now.
In simple terms, that action is to upgrade their websites to SHA-2 signed digital certificates. Many certificate authorities support unlimited free re-issues of their certificates so it can be easy for businesses to replace a SHA-1 signed certificates with a SHA-2 certificate.
The recommended approach is for businesses to:
|1. Ensure any new TLS certificates use SHA-2.|
|2. Inventory existing SSL or TLS certificates|
|3. Check for SHA-2 support in their environment||
|4. Check for SHA-2 support in the consumer population||
|5. Replace certificates in expiry order||
We are helping clients to reach out to their customers who are using SHA-1 signed SSL or TLS certificates, educating and warning that their business’ website connection is ‘untrusted’ or ‘insecure’.
Using our scalable, on-demand merchant support service, Merchant Contact Services we provide acquiring organisations with a range of inbound and outbound contact services, including tailored compliance outreach programmes. For more information request a call back or email email@example.com
If you are a merchant that requires technical or PCI DSS help, please click here